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Beitrag 127.2

Job demands and job resources as predictors of teacher well-being, engagement and motivation to leave the teaching profession


A number of recent studies in different countries show that teaching is a particularly stressful occupation (Liu & Onwuegbuzie, 2012; Stoeber & Rennert, 2008). Possible consequences of long term teacher stress are reduced well-being and lower motivation for teaching (e.g., Betoret, 2009; Collie et al., 2012; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2016, 2017). This study was based on the Job Demands – Resources (JD–R) model of stress and burnout. Aspects of the work and the work environment that may be stressful are in the JD-R model termed job demands whereas aspects that increase motivation and job satisfaction are termed job resources (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001). One purpose of this study was to explore how the perception of three job demands and four job resources in teachers’ working environment predicted teacher well-being, engagement, and motivation to leave the profession.

Participants were 760 Norwegian teachers from grade 1 to 10. Three job demands (time pressure, discipline problems, and low student motivation) and four job resources (supportive colleagues, supervisory support, collective culture, and value consonance) were included in the study. Teacher well-being was measured negatively, indicated by emotional exhaustion, depressed mood, and psychosomatic responses. Data were analyzed by means of confirmatory factor analysis testing measurement models and SEM analysis for latent traits.

A SEM model in which job demands, job resources and well-being were represented by second order factors revealed that job demands strongly predicted lower teacher well-being whereas job resources moderately predicted higher levels of well-being. In turn, teacher well-being predicted higher engagement and lower motivation to quit. Both engagement and motivation to quit were indirectly related to job demands and job resources, mediated through teacher well-being. A second SEM model in which job demands and job resources were represented by primary factors revealed that time pressure was the strongest (negative) predictor of teacher well-being and that a collective culture characterized by common goals and values positively predicted teacher well-being.

The analysis revealed that the general expectations of both a health impairment process and a motivational process derived from the JD–R model were supported. The study has several implications. We should particularly emphasize the need to reduce the time pressure in the teaching profession and to build a collective culture characterized by common goals and values and a supportive collegial environment.



Collie, R. J., Shapka, J. D., & Perry, N. E. (2012). School climate and social-emotional learning: Predicting teacher stress, job satisfaction, and teaching efficacy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104, 1189-1204.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands–Resources Model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2016). Teacher Stress and Teacher Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Engagement, Emotional Exhaustion, and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession. Creative Education, 7, 1785-1799.

Skaalvik, E. M. & Skaalvik, S. (2017). Dimensions of Teacher Burnout: Relations with Potential Stressors at School. Social Psychology of Education, 20, 775-790.